Selasa, 29 Maret 2011



The study elaborates the personality of Bella in Twilight movie by Catherine Hardwicke based on psychoanalytic approach. The aim of the study is to analyze the structural elements and the personality of Bella who chooses to live with her father or with a vampire. This study belongs to qualitative study. In this method, there are two types of data sources, which are used, namely primary data source and secondary data sources. The primary data source is the Twilight movie. Meanwhile, the secondary data sources are any literature related to the study. The researcher collects the data from both, primary and secondary data sources in a sort of document as evidence. The study uses library research to collect the data. The collected data are analyzed by means of descriptive analysis. The study comes to the following conclusions. First, based on the structural analysis of each elements, it shows that the character and characterization, setting, plot, point of view, theme, casting, sound, mise-en-scene, editing and cinematography are related to each other and form the unity into good quality of the movie. Second, based on the Psychoanalytic analysis, there is Bella’s personality can be shown from conflict between id, ego and superego. There are three ids, three egos, and three superegos of Bella that appear in the story.

A. Background of the Study
Personality is not easily defined. Basically, personality refers to attempts to capture or summarize an individual‟s essence. Personality is the science of describing and understanding persons. Clearly, personality is a core area of study for psychology. Together with intelligence, the topic of personality constitutes the most significant area of individual difference study.
Personality can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations. It is concerned with a person‟s specific traits and states of mind. Personality traits are relatively permanent and enduring qualities of behavior that a person displays in most situations. This is certainly an important part of personality, since one of the characteristics of persons is that they can differ from each other quite a bit. Personality is different from one to another, so it is interesting object to be explored. Personality is often used by authors of literary work to build their story. Film directors also often use it in their films to build their characters in their story. One of directors that reveals the personality of a person is Catherine Hardwicke in her film entitled Twilight.
In the movie of Twilight by Catherine Hardwicke, the movie tells the life experience of a human being with a vampire. Twilight movie by Catherine Hardwicke was published in United States at November 21, 2008. Twilight is a 2008 American romantic-fantasy film directed by Catherine Hardwicke and based on the novel of the same name by Stephenie Meyer that published in United States at October 5, 2005. The film stars Kristen Stewart as Bella Swan, a teenage girl who falls in love with vampire Edward Cullen, portrayed by Robert Pattinson. The project was in development for approximately three years at Paramount Pictures before it was put into pre-production by Summit Entertainment. The novel was adapted for the screen by Melissa Rosenberg in late 2007, shortly before the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike. The film was primarily shot in Washington and Oregon in early 2008. Twilight was released in theaters on November 21, 2008, and grossed $35.7 million on its opening day.
In April 2004, Paramount's MTV Films optioned Twilight, but then developed a script that bore little resemblance to it. Fortunately for devout fans of the book, Paramount put the project into turnaround. Then, in 2006, Erik Feig, president of production at Summit Entertainment, tried to make a deal with Meyer. The author had been burned before and resisted. Feig drew up a contract, guaranteeing the writer that the film would be true to her vision, including a promise that ''no vampire character will be depicted with canine or incisor teeth longer or more pronounced than may be found in human beings.'' That did the trick. It release date at November 21, 2008 (United States, Canada), December 11, 2008 (Australia), December 19, 2008 (United Kingdom), December 26, 2008 (New Zealand), and October 21, 2008 (Indonesia).
Catherine Hardwicke (born Helen Catherine Hardwicke; October 21, 1955) is an American production designer and film director. Her works include the independent film Thirteen, which she co-wrote with one of the film's co-stars, Nikki Reed, the Biblically-themed The Nativity Story, and the vampire film Twilight. The opening weekend of Twilight was the biggest opening ever for a female director. Hardwicke was born in Cameron, Texas, the daughter of Jamee Elberta (née Bennett) and John Benjamin Hardwicke. She grew up in McAllen, Texas and was raised in the Presbyterian denomination. While at UCLA film school during the 1980s, Hardwicke made an award-winning short, Puppy Does the Gumbo.
Hardwicke began her career as an architect. She spent most of the 1990s as a production designer, working on such films as Tombstone (1993), Tank Girl (1995), 2 Days in the Valley (1996), The Newton Boys (1998), and Three Kings (1999). The following year, she collaborated with director/screenwriter Cameron Crowe and actor/producer Tom Cruise on Vanilla Sky (2001). Hardwicke and fourteen-year-old Nikki Reed collaborated in writing a movie that would reflect Reed's teenage experiences. They completed the script in six days. Evan Rachel Wood was contracted to star in the movie alongside Reed. Hardwicke went on to direct Lords of Dogtown (2005), a fictionalized account of skateboarding culture. In 2006, Hardwicke directed the biblical film The Nativity Story for New Line Cinema. The film was released on December 1, 2006. In 2008, she directed the film adaptation of Stephenie Meyer's bestselling book, Twilight.
Catherine Hardwicke hardly seems like somebody who would expect to direct a blockbuster vampire movie. The soft-spoken Texan is best known for gritty, intimate and marginally commercial films, like "Thirteen," about a troubled California teenager, and "Lords of Dogtown," about a skateboarding posse. She's never directed a film based on fictional characters, let alone one with elaborate fight sequences. But, her latest film, "Twilight" based on the first book of the highly popular series by Stephenie Meyer had been opened in theaters across the country to the breathless anticipation of a large contingent of America's teenage girls.
Her works include the independent film Thirteen, The Nativity Story, and Twilight. Thirteen is a 2003 drama film co-written by Catherine Hardwicke (who also directed) and Nikki Reed (who had a leading role). It is an autobiographical film based on Reed's experiences as a 12 and 13-year-old. The script was written in six days and originally meant to be a comedy. The film caused controversy upon its release because it dealt with topics such as underage sexual behavior along with drug and alcohol abuse and self-harm. The Nativity Story is a 2006 drama film starring Keisha Castle-Hughes and Shohreh Aghdashloo. Filming began on May 1, 2006 in Matera, Italy and in Morocco. New Line Cinema released it on December 1, 2006 in the United States and one week later on December 8 in the European Union.
Twilight tells about a young-adult vampire-romance with a human. Seventeen-year-old Bella Swan moves to Forks, a small town on Washington State's rugged coast, to live with her father, Charlie, after her mother remarries to a minor league baseball player. She is quickly befriended by many students at her new high school, but she is intrigued by the mysterious and aloof Cullen siblings. Bella sits next to Edward Cullen in biology class on her first day of school; he appears to be disgusted by her, much to Bella's confusion. A few days later, Bella is nearly struck by a van in the school parking lot. Edward inexplicably moves from some feet away and stops the vehicle with his hand. He later refuses to explain this act to Bella and warns her against befriending him.
After much research, Bella eventually discovers that Edward is a vampire, though he only consumes animal blood. The pair fall in love and Edward introduces Bella to his vampire family, Carlisle, Esme, Alice, Jasper, Emmett, and Rosalie. Soon after, three nomadic vampires James, Victoria, and Laurent arrive. James, a tracker vampire, is intrigued by Edward's protectiveness over a human and wants to hunt Bella for sport. Edward and his family risk their lives to protect her, but James tracks Bella to Phoenix where she is hiding and lures her into a trap by claiming he is holding her mother hostage. James attacks Bella and bites her wrist, but Edward, along with the other Cullen family members, arrives before he can kill her. James is destroyed, and Edward sucks James's venom from Bella's wrist, preventing her from becoming a vampire. A severely injured Bella is taken to a hospital. Upon returning to Forks, Bella and Edward attend their school prom. While there, Bella expresses her desire to become a vampire, which Edward refuses. The film ends with Victoria secretly watching the pair dancing, plotting revenge for her lover James' murder.
Twilight movie by Catherine Hardwicke is an interesting movie. There are three reasons that make this film interesting to analyze. The first reason is the writer chooses this film to study because the writer wants to know the characterization of the character in Twilight. There are many characters in Twilight and the major characters are Cullen and Bella. Cullen is a vampire who can live and make interaction with many human, while Bella is a human and she has a relationship with Cullen‟s family as vampire. James‟ character is a tracker vampire that needs human blood. James wants to hunt Bella but Edward and his family protect Bella and then kill James. Bella knows that Cullen is a vampire but she remains to be friend with Cullen even she loved him.
The second reason is the writer is interested in this film that tells about the relationship between human and vampire. In Indonesia, it includes unrealistic movie because the story tells about the relationship between vampire and human. There is no vampire in Indonesia and it cannot live with human, because vampire is like gosh. So nothing gosh can live together with human and make social interaction. It is pure fantasy. In the exact same way that a sparkly vegetarian vampire is not going to be hanging out in the local high schools, the essence of Bella and Edward's attraction and fascination, perhaps even obsession, with each other is just not realistic.
The third reason is to understand the Twilight phenomenon. It is about “an average girl” and a “sparkly” vampire falling in love and dealing with its implications as the inspiration for become Twilight. Twilight is probably best understood as a teenage romance film which incorporates elements of vampire mythology rather than a horror film that also includes elements of romance. Based on the background above, the writer proposes to conduct a research entitled “Personality of Bella in Twilight Movie directed by Catherine Hardwicke 2008 : A Psychoanalytic Approach”.
B. Previous Study
The Twilight movie by Catherine Hardwicke is American romantic fantasy film that is very interesting. As far as the writer concerns, the researches on the Twilight movie have been conducted by the researchers before.
The researcher is Ma. Alyanna Mae L. Capiral 2008, the title is Structuralism Approach on Twilight Movie. She employed Structuralism approach to study this film. In her research she attempts to prove that Twilight is more than the typical vampire who falls in love with a human. The focus of this research is to discuss the Twilight movie using Structural Approach. The following questions will be answered in the research functions are really applicable to all stories and narratives. The problem statements of her research are what is the linear structure of Twilight, what is the structure of narration, what are the functions applicable to the movie, what are the spheres of action, what are the Binary Oppositions found in the movie, what other texts can be an influence to the concept of the Twilight movie. And the results are Linear Structure Bella having a peaceful life with new school is in the state of equilibrium until she met Edward. Twilight has a linear structure. The movie started with a deer running, the scene was shot in the forest. Structure of narration in few scenes, Bella is the one narrating her story. The writer can say that Bella being the main protagonist in the movie is a reliable narrator; it is a first person point of view. She is the protagonist in the movie even the Edward Cullen is also can be considered as the hero in the movie.
Different from the previous researcher this study focuses on the personality of Bella in the Twilight movie by Psychoanalytic approach. In this study the writer gives the title “Personality of Bella in Twilight Movie directed by Catherine Hardwicke 2008: A Psychoanalytic Approach”.
C. Problem Statement
Based on the background of choosing above, the main problem on this study is “How is the personality of Bella reflected in Twilight movie by Catherine Hardwicke?”
D. Objective of the Study
The objective of the research is to expose the personality of Bella based on the psychoanalytic approach by Sigmund Freud.
E. Benefit of the Study
The benefits expected from this research as follow:
1. Theoretical Benefit
To give some contribution to the larger body of knowledge of the development of knowledge particularly studies in Catherine Hardwicke‟s Twilight.
2. Practical Benefit
To give deeper understandings in literary field as the reference to the other researches and enrich the literary study, particularly among the students especially on Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta.
F. Research Method
1. Types of the Study
This type of research is qualitative in which the research does not need statistic to collect, to analyze, and to interpret the data. Qualitative research involves the use of qualitative data, such as documents and participant observation data, to understand and explain social phenomena.
2. Types of the Data and the Data Source
a. Primary data
Primary data is the main data obtained from all the movie, words, dialogues, phrases, and sentences occurring in the movie related to the topic.
b. Secondary data
Secondary data is the supporting data taken from literary books, criticism, script movie and some articles related to the movie.
3. Object of the Study
The object of the research is the movie of Catherine Hardwicke‟s Twilight published in United States at November 21, 2008, running time at 121 min. It was adopted from Stephenie Meyer‟s novel at October, 2005.
4. Technique of the Data Collection
In this research, the research uses library and internet research. The data are collected from the movie and script related to the topic. The first step is watching Twilight movie many times to identify the problem and to find the data. Then it is continued by reading the script and theory with the subject, finally is collecting the supporting data from any critical review, internet, and other references related to the topic.
5. Technique of the Data Analysis
The technique of data analysis is descriptive in which the researcher uses the psychoanalytic approaches by Sigmund Freud theory and draws a conclusion.
G. Research Organization
This research consists of five chapters. Chapter I is Introduction, which consists of background, previous studies, research problem, research objective, research limitation, research benefit, research methodology, and the last is research organization. Chapter II comprises of the Underlying Theory, which presents notion of personality and structure of personality. Chapter III is Structural Analysis of the movie, which is involves the structural element of characters and characterization, setting, point of view, plot, style, theme, intent,cast, and discussion. Chapter IV constitutes Psychoanalytic Analysis of the personality. The last is Chapter V which contains Conclusion and Suggestion.

In this chapter the writer tries to develop the theory that has relation to the problem in the story, namely personality that appears in the major characters. The writer uses Freud‟s Psychoanalysis in analyzing how personality that appears in the major character is reflected in the story. It is considered that Psychoanalysis can explore the personality disorder that is caused by the experience in the past. This chapter consists of the notion of psychoanalysis, the system of personality, and the theoretical application.
A. Notion of Psychoanalysis
As a general theory of individual human behavior and experience, psychoanalytic ideas enrich and are enriched by the study of the biological and social sciences, group behavior, history, philosophy, art, and literature. The psychoanalytic framework stresses the importance of understanding that each individual is unique; there are factors outside of a person's awareness (unconscious thoughts, feelings and experiences) which influence his or her thoughts and actions, and human beings are always engaged in the process of development throughout their lives.
Psychoanalytic describes a work that applies the work of psychoanalysts to work within critical theory. Much psychoanalytic theory applies psychoanalytic thought to cultures at large instead of to individuals.
It endeavors to analyze and interpret ideas and fantasies by observing the manner in which they are being expressed and acted out in culture. The psychoanalytic view holds that there are inner forces outside of awareness that are directing the behavior.
Psychoanalytic is branch of psychological study that analyzes the human being personality based on the unconscious thoughts. Freud (Kristen M Beystehner in http://psychology.about.com) gives great attention on the importance of unconscious process in the understanding of human being function. Psychoanalytic theory is a general term for approaches to psychoanalysis which attempts to provide a conceptual framework more or less independent of clinical practice rather than based on empirical analysis of clinical cases. According to Freud (Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 85), there are various models of human psyche based on this psychoanalytic theory and practice. The model is known as topographical model of personality organization that contains three levels namely conscious, preconscious, and unconscious (Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 86).
According to Freud (in Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 87), unconscious is deepest and the major stratum of the human mind. In Freud (Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 87) theory the unconscious is the storehouse of disguise truths and desire that wants to be revealed in and through the conscious. These disguise truths and desire inevitably make themselves know trough human art, literature; dream, play, and accidental slip of tongue know Freudian slips. In the unconscious there are some basic powers which impulse and support the personality of human psychology, man should explore deeply on the conscious of human being psychology. Freud gives great attention on the important of the unconscious process in understanding human action. He argues that the unconscious only known as a hypothetical abstraction but it can be known as realities that can be proved and demonstrated, Freud also believes that human behavior is shaped and directed by impulse and it is drive by awareness that is being the major premise of psychoanalysis theory (Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 87). Based on the explanation above psychoanalysis is part of psychological study that focused on the human being personality. It is a method of therapy for personality disturbances and technique for investigating an individual unconscious thought and feelings (Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 87). Freud (Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 86) state that according to the models psyches life, the personality organization can be represented by three levels: the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious.
B. System of Personality
Freud (Hall and Lindzay, 1981: 29-46) divides three aspect of personality, those are: Id, Ego, And Superego. Although these aspects have each function, Component, Principle work and self dynamic, but these have relationship each of the Id, Ego, and Superego. The unity and human being behavior are the result of these aspects.
1. Id
Id refers to the biological aspect and the original systems in the personality. Id contains the biological elements including instinct and Id is the conscious physic energy to operate ego and superego. In psychoanalytic theory, the Id is the home base for instincts. It constantly strives to satisfy the wish impulse of the instinct by reducing tension. The id is the only component of personality that is present from birth. This aspect of personality is entirely unconscious and includes of the instinctive and primitive behaviors. According to Freud, the id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and needs. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state anxiety or tension. Pervin and John (1997: 107) state that the conscious means “Those thought, Experiences, and feelings, which we are aware. The preconscious is for thought, experiences, and feelings. The unconscious is those thought, experiences, and feelings of which we are aware.” For Freud, This unawareness is the result of oppression. Freud claims,” psychoanalysis aims and achieves nothing more than discovery of the unconscious in mental life” (in Pervin and John, 1984:71).
Freud (in Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 88) states that the functions of id are trying to instinctual biological argue that makes the energy for people
behavior. Id in its function is based on the aims to defense the constancy, which has a purpose to avoid pain and maximize gratification. To accomplish its aim of avoiding pain and obtaining pleasure, the id has two processes. There are reflex action and primary process. Reflect action is automatic reaction and its appearing in every individual like sneezing and blinking them usually reduce tension immediately. The second process is the primarily process. It involves somewhat more complicated psychological reaction (Feist, 1985: 25). For example is primary process serving the imagination of food to a hungry person (Feist: 25). The id is Freud structural concept for the source of the instinct of all of the drive energy in people, he believes that the social impulse is the most important thing in personality, it is free of inhibitions and cannot tolerate frustration but for reality it shows no regard because it only seeks satisfaction (Pervin and John, 1984: 76).
2. Ego
The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality. According to Freud, The ego develops from the Id and ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in an acceptable manner in the real world. The ego functions the conscious, Preconscious, and unconscious mind. The ego operates based on the reality principle, which strives to satisfy the Id desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways. The reality principle weighs the costs and benefits of an action before deciding to act upon or abandon impulses. In many cases, The Id impulses can be satisfied through a process of delayed gratification the ego will eventually allow the behaviors, but only in. the appropriate time and place. The ego also discharges tension created by unmet impulses through the secondary process, in which the ego tries to find an object in the real world that matches the mental image created by the Id primary process. According to Pervin (1984: 75) reality principle means “the gratification of the instinct that is delayed until an optimum time when most pleasure can be obtained with the least pain of negative consequences. The function is to express and satisfy the desires of the id in accordance with reality and the demands of the superego. Hall and Lindzey (1981: 34) also state that the secondary process is “a realistic thinking, it delays action until it finds a need satisfying objects”. It involves reality testing in which the ego makes a plan for satisfying a need and then tests it in order to see whatever it works or not.
3. Superego
The superego is the aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society our sense of right and wrong. The superego provides guidelines for making judgments. There are two parts of the superego:
1) The ego ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors. These behaviors include those which are approved of by parental and other authority figures. Obeying these rules leads to feelings of pride, value, and accomplishment.
2) The conscience includes information about things that are viewed as bad by parents and society. These behaviors are often forbidden and lead to bad consequences, punishments or feelings of guilt and remorse.
The superego acts to perfect and to civilize our behavior. It works to suppress all unacceptable urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon realistic principles. The superego is present in the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious.
C. Structural Elements of the Movie
There are two elements of the movie: narrative and technical elements. Narrative elements are that elements that build the story of the movie. Those elements are including the character and characterization, style, setting, plot, point of view, and theme. Whereas the technical elements deals with the elements that have close relationship with the technical of producing movie. These elements cover casting, mise_en scene, sound, editing, and cinematography (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 126).
1. Narrative Elements of the Movie
a. Character and Characterization
Narrative film and television balance character with story development (Douglass and Harnden, 1996: 96). Action drama, in which the character‟s actions are the primarily driven by people and
events that are external to the character, often sacrifice characterization for the sake of story complications and speed. The quality of character is characterization. In general, a character will have the number and kind of trait needed to function causally in the narrative. Characters traits can involve attitudes, skills, preferences, psychological drives, details of dress and appearance, and any other specific quality the film crates for a character (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 58).
b. Setting
Setting in cinema plays more active role than in most theoretical style (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 130). Setting is the place or time of a story, in many stories, Setting is only the air characteristic breathe, Vital, and taken for granted.
c. Plot
The term pot is used to describe everything visibly and audible present in the film before us. The plot includes, first, all the story events that are directly depicted. Secondly, the film‟s plot may contain material that is extraneous to the story world (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 57) The basic elements of dramatic structure found in most production are the beginning, the middle, and the end (Douglass and Harnden, 1996: 48).
a) The Beginning
The beginning is about quarter the length of a production (Douglass and Harnden, 1996: 48). In the beginning the audience is let know where the story is going by the presentation of the hero or heroine and other major participants, the location or setting of place in with the game will be played, the problems or premise and also the theme (Douglass and Harnden, 1996: 48-49).
b) The Middle
The middle section is about half the production or even a little longer (Douglass and Harnden, 1996: 48). The middle of the dramatic structure contains the struggle of the hero or heroine to achieve the solution of the problems has been defined, which discovered or created in the beginning (Douglass and Harnden, 1996: 49).
c) The End
The end is also called resolution. The ending of the story is giving the problem solving all events in the society. In this stage the hero and heroine resolve their problem in a way satisfactory to the audience (Douglass and Harnden, 1996: 50).
Finally, plot is sequence of events so the story is composed. Plot is a linking of the exposition of the beginning, the middle, and the end. The exposition of the beginning consists of the rising section until
climax in which the major characters fine their problems or conflicts. The middle consists of the highest conflict, so it called climax. The end consist of falling action in which conflicts decrease, there are some problem solving. The producer organizes his story or his movie appropriate to plot.
d. Point of View
Point of view refers to the interests, attitudes, and a belief associated with a character‟s group‟s particular perspective (Douglass and Harnden, 1996: 31). There are two meaning of point of view. Firstly, point of view refers to camera shot taken as if seen through the eyes of a character (Douglass and Harnden, 1996: 31-32).
Secondly, point of view refers to the perspective of the story teller. This point of view is divided into three categories: first person, second person, and third person (not omniscient) (Douglass and Harnden, 1990: 31-35). First person narrative can shift the balance from visual and dialogue, to commentary and contemplative language (Douglass and Harnden, 1996: 33). In second person point of view, when the photographer of the cinema is no established a character in the scene, the audience feel that the direct address being made to the camera speaks to the audience directly (Douglass and Harnden, 1996: 34). The meaning of third person (not omniscient) in movie production is point of view that the reader or viewer can enter the mind and hear
the conscious thought of the characters (Douglass and Harnden, 1996: 35).
e. Theme
According to Douglass and Harnder (1996: 5), film/play marker should determine the theme in the story before step a head into the text path. Discovering is where the film/play marker creativity being in this case the film/play markers examine their attitude towards the subject, study the material and analyze the knowledge of the audience. Theme is the basic idea of story in which the author portrays through conflicts of character with other character or with life events. Theme also can be a central insight of the story.
2. Technical Elements of Movie
According to Bardwell and Thompson (1996: 126), technical element of a movie consists of casting, Mise-en-Scene, sound, editing, and cinematography.
a. Casting
Casting characters require knowing the qualities at the centers of the characters that are the most important, the ones that motivate them through the story, and the finding people who can understand and convey those qualities (Douglass and Harnden, 1996: 108).
Briefly, casting is one of the movie elements in which it is a process of selecting actors, dancer, and other, so those actors can form breath taking performance because of their acting.
b. Mise-en-Scene
Mise-en-Scene is the one with which we are most familiar. In original French, mise-en-scene (mezz-ahn-sen) “staging and action“ and it as first applied to the practice of directing plays (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 127). Mise-en-scene includes those aspects that overlap with the art of theatre: set dressing and props, lighting, costume and make up, and design.
1) Set Dressing and Props
Set dressing is the items in the scene such as furniture, picture on the wall, curtains, knick-knack or table, lamps, rugs, and anything that dresses the bare walls and floor of set (Douglass and Harnden, 1996: 131). Douglass and Harnden (1996: 131) state that props refer to objects that actors use in the drama or film such as a picture of love, a baseball glove, a gun, a bouquet of flowers, or pizza that delivered to the door.
2) Costume and Make-Up
Like setting, costume can have specific functions in the total film, and the range of possibilities is huge (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 132). Costume should express the personality of the characters, revealing his social status, tastes and idiosyncrasies. Costume are often
cut and marked in an exaggerated way, so their character can be distinguished from the theatre‟s back now, customers for film usually must be believable in close up (Douglass and Harnden, 1996: 131).
3) Lighting
In cinema, lighting is more than just illumination that permits us to see the action. Lighting design is fundamental to the photographic arts. Together with camera placement and jeans selection, it is the principal expertise of the photographer (Douglass and Harnden, 1996: 136). Lighting compositions are defined as either high-key fighting designs. Naturally, high-key lighting and low-key treatments not only depend on lighting but the color in the scene as well (Douglass and Harnden, 1996: 136-137). According to Bordwell and Thompson (1990: 134), lighting is directly connected to the film stock for certain light conditions have to be fulfilled according to the sensitivity of the film.
D. Design
The selection of location, props and costumes reflect the milieu of the story and the personalities of the characters, once we have selected these tangibles, the design elements aligned and frame in shot with the addition lighting, the visible component translate into our photographic composition on the screen (Douglass, 1996: 145).
c. Sound
Sound in the cinema takes three forms: speech, music, and noise (sound effect). The film marker should consider how speech, music, and noise are selected and combined for specific functions within film (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 248). Sounds can build our sense mode and our understanding image. Sound can give complete background and also create image of the viewers.
d. Editing
Editing in film production is the task of selection and joining camera takes. It may be thought as be coordination of one shot with the next (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 209). Bordwell and Thompson (1990: 218) state that in continuity editing, there are spatial continuity. The purpose of continuity editing is to smooth over the inherent discontinuity of the editing process and to establish logical coherent between shots.
e. Cinematography
A comprehensive account of cinema as an art cannot stop with simply what is put in front of the camera. The shot does not exist until light and dark patterns are inscribed on a strip of film. The film marker also consists of three features: Photographic Qualities of Shot, Framing of Shot, and Duration of Shot.
1) Photographic Qualities of Shot
Cinematography depends on large extent on photography. According to Bordwell and Thompson (1990: 156-157), the film marker should control all the visual qualities by manipulating film stock and exposure. Exposure an be controlled by regulating how much light pass the camera lens, though images shot with “correct” exposure can also be overexposed in developing and printing. The film marker can select the range of the tone, manipulate the speed of motion and change point of view (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 156).
2) Framing of Shot
Film frame produces a certain vantage point to get the material within the image (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 167). Frame means the position from which the object in the image is viewed. Frame can be powerfully to the image by means of the way framing the position the angle, level, height and distance of a vantage point into the image. Angle is the position of frame related to the image. There are three categories of Angle, the straight on Angle, the high Angle, (it position us “looking down” at the material within the frame) and low Angle (it position us “looking up” at the frame material). Level is the degree of framing. Height is the distance the camera from ground. Distance is the apparent distance of the frame of image (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 175-177)
3) The Duration of Shot
To develop the cinematography quality, it needs a note on the relationship of short duration to the time consumed by the film events to understand the duration of shot (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 195). The duration of shot refers to the shot or records of one camera to take the whole shot in movie production.

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