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Rabu, 23 Maret 2011

A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON TEACHING SPEAKING OF RECOUNT TEXT BASED ON SCHOOL LEVEL-BASED CURRICULUM AT THE EIGHT YEAR OF SMP N 6 WONOGIRI IN 2009/2010 ACA

Abstract
FAJARWATI, ARIEFIKA (2010)

This research paper aims at describing the implementation of study on teaching speaking of recount text and identifying the problems faced by the teacher and the students on teaching speaking of recount text based on school level-based curriculum at the eight year of SMP N 6 WONOGIRI. This research belongs qualitative research, which does not use statistic data. The research was conducted at SMP N 6 Wonogiri and the writer used four ways to collect the data, namely: library study, observation, interview, and document analysis. The data of this research are interview script, field notes, lesson plan and the sources of the data, namely: event, respondents, and documents. The results of the study show that: 1) The goals on teaching speaking of recount text based on school level-based curriculum at the eight year in SMP N 6 WONOGIRI are to develop the students’ courage to speak English in front of the audience, to improve speaking skill, especially for the students in recount text lesson, and to make the students understand recount text in English lesson, especially in English speaking. 2) The strategies in speaking activity of recount text applied by the teacher are using the group work, making a careful choice of topic and giving tasks to stimulate interest, giving some instructions or training in discussion skills, and keeping students to speak the target language. 3) The syllabus of English lesson is designed and is arranged by the teacher. The teacher does not only use text book as the source of material but also uses a work sheet to make the students understand the material more. 4) The classroom activities on teaching speaking of recount text are describing picture and interviewing. 5) To guarantee the effectiveness of students’ achievement in performing the speaking, the teacher takes four steps, namely: BKOF (Building Knowledge of Field), MOT (Modeling of Text), JCOT (Joint Construction of Text), and ICOT (Individual Construction of Text). 6) The problems faced by the teacher on teaching speaking are classroom management, limited time, different capability in receiving the materials each student, and differences of the parents’ economic and educational background of the students. 7) The problems faced by the students on teaching speaking of recount text are limited vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar, the performance, and nervousness.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study
One of the ways to express ideas, feelings, experiences and knowledge is by using language, either in written or spoken from, formal or informal situation. Human beings as a social and individual people always communicate with the others. For communicating, someone uses and needs language. Moreover, communication is needed in human daily activities, because without communication, human will not be able to interact each other. They also will not be able to share their hopes, opinions, ideas and etc. Speaking is an important aspect in language learning. By speaking, we can convey information and ideas, and maintain social relationship by communicating with others. Lacking the ability to communicate orally, people cannot be successful in school or society. That is why the main purpose of language learning is to develop proficiency in speaking and communicative efficiency. They regard speaking as the most important skill they can acquire and asses their progress in terms of their accomplishments in spoken communication.
As we know that speaking is one of the important and essential skills that people must practice. In education world, there are many kinds of subjects in teaching learning process, one of the basic language skills is speaking. Speaking English becomes very important in using English for comunication.
By speaking with other, the students are able to know what kinds of situation are in the world. People know that language is habit. Language is not only taught and learnt, but it is used as habit. So, students of English class must be able to speak English well because people identify the English mastery by their speaking English well. In other words, the students are expected to be competent users of English in communicating with others. For example, in teaching speaking, they are expected to be able to do and realize the speech (speech act, speech function, language function) in developing the competency. Students are instructed to do the speech, such as opening conversation, defending the conversation, closing the conversation, asking for help, etc, which are realized on the form of language rule (grammar) and vocabulary.
In her research, the writer’s reason in choosing SMP N 6 WONOGIRI is because SMP N 6 WONOGIRI has been applying KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan) or School Level-based Curriculum. The school emphasizes speaking skill as the way of improving the student’s language capability. This is aimed at developing oral skill of the students in learning English. On the other side, there are some difficulties in English speaking teaching-learning process. The difficulty is usually faced by the teacher. They must find out some methods to teach English in order to make students not bored. The last, the difficulty is also faced by the students. They do not realize that English is important for them. The students tend to study vocabulary, grammar, fluency, and pronunciation to improve the students’ speaking
capability. Meanwhile, the writer chooses a recount text because it is important thing for the students and it is one of genre, which is taught for students in eight year based on syllabus. From the reasons above, the writer is interested in conducting the research entitled A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON TEACHING SPEAKING OF RECOUNT TEXT BASED ON SCHOOL LEVEL-BASED CURRICULUM AT THE EIGHT YEAR OF SMP N 6 WONOGIRI IN 2009/2010 ACADEMIC YEAR. The writer hopes that this writing is useful for the readers.
B. Problem of the Study
Based on the research background, the writer states the research problems as follows:
1. How is the implementation of study on teaching speaking of recount text based on school level-based curriculum at the eight year of SMP N 6 WONOGIRI?
2. What problems are faced by the teacher and the students on teaching speaking of recount text based on school level-based curriculum at the eight year of SMP N 6 WONOGIRI?
C. Limitation of the Study
In this research, the writer limits the research only on teaching speaking of recount text based on school level-based curriculum at the eight
year of SMP N 6 Wonogiri in 2009/2010 academic year because in SMP N 6 WONOGIRI has been applying KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan) or School Level-based Curriculum. Here, the school emphasizes speaking skill as the way of improving the student’s language capability.
D. Objective of the Study
Based on the problem statements, the objectives of this research are as follows:
1. To describe the implementation of study on teaching speaking of recount text based on school level-based curriculum at the eight year of SMP N 6 WONOGIRI.
2. To describe the problems faced by the teacher and the students on teaching speaking of recount text based on school level-based curriculum at the eight year of SMP N 6 WONOGIRI.
E. Benefit of the Study
There are two benefits of this study, practical benefit and theoretical benefit.
1. The practical benefits are:
a. For the writer herself
She can get larger knowledge about a descriptive study on teaching speaking recount text based on school level-based curriculum.
b. For the readers
They will get larger knowledge and information about a descriptive study on teaching speaking recount text based on school level-based curriculum.
c. For the teacher and the learner
The result of this study will help the English teacher and the learners to solve the problem in teaching and learning English especially in teaching and learning speaking.
2. The theoretical benefits are:
a. The result of the research can be useful for the English teacher in giving additional input in English speaking class.
b. The writer hopes that this research can be reference for other researcher who will conduct the same object with different perspective.
F. Research Paper Organization
In order to make the research easy to follow, the writer organizes the research paper as follows: Chapter I is introduction, which consists of background of the study, problem of the study, limitation of the study, objective of the study, benefit of the study, and research paper organization. Chapter II is review of related literature, which elaborates of previous study, notion of speaking, teaching speaking, elements of speaking, recount text, and school level-based curriculum.
Chapter III is research method, which presents of type of the research, place and time of research, subject and object of the research, data and data source, method of collecting data, and technique for analyzing data. Chapter IV is research finding and discussion. It focuses on the data analysis and discussion of the finding. Chapter V is conclusion and suggestion.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A. Previous Study
In accomplishing her research, the writer uses the previous research dealing with the topic of her study as her guidance. The first research was done by Suhartini (UMS, 2007). She conducted a research paper entitled The Discussion Technique in Teaching Speaking Based on School Level-Based Curriculum in the Second Year of SMP N 3 Kartasura. She finds many problems faced by the teacher and students. The problems of the teacher are the limited capability of students and the mentality. In other side the students’ problem are the performance or readiness, nervousness, vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar. So, they do not use English language but use Indonesia language when they interact with their friend in their discussion.
The second research was done by Castinah (2006, UMS). She conducted a research paper entitled Collaborative Learning Model in Teaching Speaking Using Role Play Based on KTSP Curriculum to the First Year of SMA N 1 Pemalang in the 2006/2007 Academic Year. In her research, she concludes that there are some strengths and weaknesses of collaborative learning model in teaching speaking using role play. Using collaborative learning model through role play in teaching speaking is effective in students performance, but the students who have low capability in speaking will be difficult in joining the teaching learning process although using this method.
In this research, although the writer uses the same object in speaking, but the writer uses different method in analyzing the data. The writer describes the implementation and problems faced by the teacher and the students on teaching speaking of recount text based on school level-based curriculum at the eight year of SMP N 6 Wonogiri in 2009/2010 academic year.
B. The Notion of Speaking
According to Tarigan (1990: 3) speaking is language skill that is developed in child life, which is processed by listening skill, and at that period the speaking skill is learned. It means that speaking as the basis of language. O’ Malley (1990: 66-67) says that speaking is an example of a complex cognitive skill that can be differentiated into various hierarchical sub-skills, some of which require controlled processing while others could be processed automatically. Based on Harmer (2002: 12-104) generally there are five elements in speech process. Those elements are:
a. Pronunciation
Pronunciation is the students’ way to utter English well.
b. Vocabulary
Vocabulary means the appropriate diction which is used in conversation.
c. Grammar
Grammar concerns with how to arrange a correct sentence in conversation.
d. Gesture and Mimics
Gesture is a form of non verbal communication made with a part of the body.
e. Fluency and Accuracy
Fluency can be defined as the ability to speak fluently and accurately suited with professional necessity. Basically,
being fluent means being able to keep the language coming. (Frederick & Klippel, 1984
www.TeachingEnglish.org.uk/speak/speaking_skills). It means that speaking is more than talking. So it involve some abilities such as thinking, sensitively in listening, accuracy in the adjustment of speech organs, a critical attitude towards self and expressing skill.
C. Teaching Speaking
In language teaching, especially teaching speaking, the teachers help their students develop their knowledge by providing authentic practice that prepares students for real life communication situations. They help their students develop the ability to produce grammatically correct, logically connected sentences that are appropriate to specific contexts and acceptable (that is, comprehensible) pronunciation. Teaching speaking means use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses, which is called as fluency. (Nunan, 2003 in http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Kayi-TeachingSpeking.html) According to Nunan (1991: 54-56), there are five principles of teaching speaking, as follows:
a. Be aware of the differences between second language and foreign language learning contexts.
b. Give students practice with both fluency and accuracy.
c. Provide opportunities for students to talk by using group work or pair work, and limiting teacher talk.
d. Plan speaking tasks that involve negotiation for meaning.
e. Design classroom activities that involve guidance and practice in both transactional and interaction speaking.
It means that in teaching speaking skill, teacher should recognize the difficulties faced by his/ her students. The teachers help their students develop their knowledge by providing authentic practice that prepares students for real-life communication situations.
D. Elements of Speaking
According to Harmer (2002: 260-271) there are two elements of speaking, those elements as follows:
1. Language Features
a. Connected speech: effective speaker of English need to be able not only to produce the individual phonemes of English but also to use fluent “connected speech”.
b. Expressive devices: the use of these devices contributes to the ability to convey meanings.
c. Lexis and grammar: spontaneous speech is marked by the use of number common lexical phrases, especially in the performance of certain language functions.
d. Negotiation Language: effective speaking benefits from the negotiator language we use to seek clarification and show the structure of what we are saying.
2. Mental/ Social processing
a. Language processing: language processing involves the retrieval of words and phrases from memory and their assembly into syntactically and propositionally appropriate sequences.
b. Interacting with others: most speaking involves interaction with one or more participants.
c. (On the spot) Information processing: quite apart from our response to others’ feelings, we also need to be able to process the information they tell us the moment we get it.
Here, both of them have important function to increasing speaking skill. Learners can compensate their insufficient knowledge of language elements by using language features, and mental/ social processing.
E. Recount Text
Recount text is a text written to retell for information or entertainment. A fictional narrative recount may consist of scene-setting, a starting point, a problem, account and a conclusion. The language is descriptive, and there may be dialogue. Characters are defined and often named. A non-fiction recount may begin with a scene-setting introduction, and time of story. (Rasyid, 2010. http://www.rasyid14.wordpress.com.) The text structure of a recount starts with an orientation. This part tells the readers the main idea of the story being discussed in the text. This part gives a setting of the story, so that readers are aware of the story about. Again, it gives an orientation. The next part is the series of events. In this part, the story starts from the very early stages. That is to say, the story develops based on the sequence of the events. Finally, after all events are presented, the writer wraps story up with a re-orientation. In this part, the writer summarizes the story and tells his/her impression of the experience that what has been elaborated. It means that the social function of Recount Text is to record events for the purpose of informing schematic structure and there are significant grammatical patterns, such us focus on specific participants, using past tense, and verbs of action.
F. School Level-based Curriculum
There is a lot of “curriculum” definition used in education. Nunan (1998: 14) states that curriculum is usually used to refer a particular program of study. It refers to all aspects of planning and managing education program. The existence of the curriculum is very important in education because it is a guide to the teaching-learning process conformed to the plan arranged before. While Olivia (1992) in Joko (2007: 80) states that: curriculum is that which is taught in school, is a set of subject, is content, is a program of studies, is a set of materials, is a course of study, is a sequence of course, is a set of performance objective, is everything that goes on within the school, including extra class activities, guidance, and inter personal relationship, is that which is taught both inside and outside of school directed by the school, is everything that is planned by school personal, is a series of experiences undergone by learners in school and is that which an individual learner experiences as a result of schooling. It means that curriculum is a very general concept, which contributes to the planning of an educational program.
School Level-based Curriculum is the strategy in developing curriculum to create the school which are effectiveness productiveness an achievement. It is new education paradigm in developing curriculum, which gives the wide autonomy to each educational unit, and societies’ involved in making effectiveness in school teaching. Mulyasa (2007: 21) tries to provide some idea about the definiton of School Level-based Curriulum. He says that School Level-based Curriculum is an idea about the curriculum development which put on the near position with teaching-learning process, that are: school
and educational unit. School Level-based Curriculum is one of education reform that gives the autonomy to the school and educational unit to develop curriculum based on the each potency, demand, and needs. According to Depdiknas (2007: 5) School Level-based Curriculum is an operational curriculum which is arranged and done by each institution of educational unit level. There are principles in developing and components of School Level-based Curriculum, such as:
1. The Principles in Developing School Level-based Curriculum.
This curriculum is developed based on the principles as follows:
a. Stress on learners’ potency, developing, needs, and learners’ environments’ interest.
b. Various and integrated.
c. Must be perspective with the developing of science and technology.
d. Relevance with the life’s needs.
e. Comprehensive and continuously.
f. Learn long life.
g. Match between national and region interest.
2. Components of School Level Based Curriculum.
a. The purpose of grade school basic curriculum is formulated to the general education purposes.
b. The operational reference in arranging the grade of educational unit curriculum.
c. Raising the faith and pious to be character.
d. Raising the potency, intelligence, and want which appropriate with the developing level and capability of the learners.
e. Demands for reconstruction of the region and national.
f. Development of science, technology and art.
It means that School Level-based Curriculum components is held based on the aim and School Level-based Curriculum principles. So, School Level-based Curriculum components are said good if have appropriate with that School Level-based Curriculum principles.

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